Everything but Arms

  Least Developed Countries

Everything but Arms (EBA) is an initiative of the European Union under which all imports to the EU from the Least Developed Countries are duty-free and quota-free, with the exception of armaments. EBA entered into force on 5 March 2001. There were transitional arrangements for bananas, sugar and rice until January 2006, July 2009 and September 2009 respectively. The EBA is part of the EU Generalized System of Preferences (GSP).[1] The up-to-date list of all countries benefiting from such preferential treatment is given in Annex IV of the consolidated text of Regulation (EU) 978/2012.[2]

The aim of the scheme is to encourage the development of the world's poorest countries.

Samoa, having graduated from LDC status in 2014 (becoming instead a developing country),[3] was removed from the list of EBA beneficiaries on 1 January 2019.[4]

On January 16, 2019, the European Commission decided to re-introduce import duties on rice from Cambodia and Myanmar. This was done because imports of Indica rice from both countries combined have increased by 89% in the past five rice-growing seasons. At the same time, the prices were substantially lower than those on the EU market and had actually decreased over the same period. This surge in low-price imports has caused serious difficulties for EU rice producers to the extent that their market share in the EU dropped substantially from 61% to 29%.[5]

Cambodia lost its EBA status in 2020 over human rights concerns.[6]

History

GATT decision IV.D.3, dating back to 28 November 1979, provided the basis for more favourable treatments of least developed countries.[7] The first proposal of an EBA agreement started on 20 September 2000: the European Commission proposed introducing "duty-free, quota-free access for all products from all least developed countries into the EU".[8] The preferential treatment promotes least developed countries (LDC) that, among other things, respect international conventions on human rights; the tariff preferences granted to Cambodia were recently suspended on some products because of "serious and systematic violations of the human rights principles enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights".[9]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Therefore the legal text can be found in the GSP regulation, art 12 and 13.
  2. ^ "REGULATION (EU) No 978/2012 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL". eur-lex.europa.eu. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  3. ^ Ashton, Melanie (2012-06-02). "UN-OHRLLS Announces Samoa to Graduate from LDC Status". IISD's SDG Knowledge. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  4. ^ "GSP EBA country list" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  5. ^ "EU imposes safeguard measures on rice from Cambodia and Myanmar", a press release by the European Commission. Brussels, 16 January 2019. Retrieved 2019-01-21.
  6. ^ "Press corner". European Commission - European Commission. Retrieved 2020-12-12.
  7. ^ "IV.D.3 GATT DECISION ON DIFFERENTIAL AND MORE FAVOURABLE TREATMENT, RECIPROCITY, AND FULLER PARTICIPATION OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES". International Law & World Order: Weston's & Carlson's Basic Documents. 2015-04-24.
  8. ^ Berloco, Fabrizio. "IL regime EBA – "Everything But Arms"" (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  9. ^ "Cambodia: EU launches procedure to temporarily suspend trade preferences". European Commission. 11 February 2019. Retrieved 2020-09-28.

References

  • Regulation (EU) No 978/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 applying a scheme of generalised tariff preferences and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 732/2008.

External links

  • European Union Generalised System of Preference regulation EC No 980/2005 Archived version
  • European Commission EU Trade Helpdesk - "Everything But Arms"
  • Oxfam, December 2000, "Everything but Arms and Sugar?"
  • v
  • t
  • e
Bilateral relations
Africa
Americas
Asia
Europe
Oceania
Former
General
  • †= Disputed state, may not be recognised as an independent state by some or all European Union members.
Multilateral relations and initiatives
Organisations
Initiatives
Administration and policies
Foreign and Security Policy
Administration
Funding
  • v
  • t
  • e
Leadership
Structure
External Action Service
Agencies
Council preparatory bodies
European Commission bodies
Policies
Other
Equipment
Decorations
  • v
  • t
  • e
Multinational
Union level
Battlegroups
Other
Provided through
TEU Article 42.3
  • v
  • t
  • e
Military operations
[Ground] force (EUFOR)
Naval force (EUNAVFOR)
Military missions
Training mission (EUTM)
Civilian missions
Police mission (EUPOL, EUPM)
Capacity building mission (EUCAP)
Border assistance mission (EUBAM)
Rule of law mission (EULEX)
Monitoring mission (EUMM)
Military advisory mission (EUMAM)
  • RCA (2015–2016)
Aviation security mission (EUAVSEC)
  • South Sudan (2013–2014)
Mission in support of the
security sector reform (EUSSR)
  • Guinea-Bissau (2008–2010)
Integrated rule of law mission (EUJUST)
  • Iraq (2015–2013)
  • Georgia (2004–2005)
Mission to provide advice and assistance
for security sector reform (EUSEC)
  • RD Congo (2005–2016)
Advisory mission (EUAM)
  • Ukraine (2014–present)
  • Iraq (2017–present)
Police advisory team (EUPAT)
  • FYROM (2005–2006)
Other
  • AMIS EU Supporting Action (2005–2007)
  • PAMECA (2002–present)
  • Minesweeping operation in the Strait of Hormuz, (Operation Cleansweep, 1987–1988)
  • Police and customs operation with OSCE on the Danube (1993–1996)
  • Police contingent in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994–1996)
  • Multinational Advisory Police Element in Albania (MAPE, 1997–2001)
  • Demining Assistance Mission to Croatia (WEUDAM, 1999–2001)
  • General security surveillance mission in Kosovo (1998–1999)
1: Conducted by the Western European Union prior to 2003. These missions were not named using conventional prefixes such as EUFOR, EUNAVFOR etc.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Western Union (1948–1951/1954) Flag of the Western Union.svg
European Defence Community (plan that failed in 1954)
Western European Union (1954–2011) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg Flag of the Western European Union.svg
European Union (1992–present) Flag of Europe.svg
Period before the union had defence structures (1993–1999)
European Security and Defence Policy (1999–2009)
Common Security and Defence Policy (2009–present)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Militaries of the European Union
Austrian Armed Forces


Map of Southeast Asia
Belgian Armed Forces
Bulgarian Armed Forces
Armed Forces of Croatia
Cypriot National Guard
Army of the Czech Republic
Danish Defence
Estonian Defence Forces
Finnish Defence Forces
French Armed Forces
Bundeswehr
Hellenic Armed Forces
Hungarian Defence Forces
Irish Defence Forces
Italian Armed Forces
Latvian National Armed Forces
Lithuanian Armed Forces
Luxembourg Army
Armed Forces of Malta
Netherlands Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
Portuguese Armed Forces
Romanian Armed Forces
Slovak Armed Forces
Slovenian Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
EU member states
Austria Austria
Belgium Belgium
Bulgaria Bulgaria
Croatia Croatia
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic
Denmark Denmark
Estonia Estonia
Finland Finland
France France
Germany Germany
Greece Greece
Hungary Hungary
Republic of Ireland Ireland
Italy Italy
Latvia Latvia
Lithuania Lithuania
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta
Netherlands Netherlands
Poland Poland
Portugal Portugal
Romania Romania
Slovakia Slovakia
Slovenia Slovenia
Spain Spain
Sweden Sweden
European Union portal · War portal
Stub icon

This article about the European Union is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

  • v
  • t
  • e