Foreign relations of Italy

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Nations with which Italy has diplomatic relations.

The foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian government's external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a major Western power since its unification in 1861.[1] Its main allies are the NATO countries and the EU states, two entities of which Italy is a founding member. Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and it is a member and a strong supporter of a wide number of international organisations, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe, and the Central European Initiative.

Its turns in the rotating presidency of international organisations include the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the G7 and the EU Council. Italy is also a recurrent non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Italy is an important actor in the Mediterranean region and has close relations with the Romance-speaking countries in Europe and Latin America. Although it is a secular state,[2] Rome hosts the Pope and the headquarters of the Catholic Church, which operates a large diplomatic system of its own. Italy is currently commanding various multinational forces and has significant troops deployed all over the world for peacekeeping missions, and for combating organized crime, illegal drug trade, human trafficking, piracy and terrorism.[3]

History

National unification

Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871

The Risorgimento was the era 1829–1871 that saw the emergence of a national consciousness. Italians achieved independence from Austria and from the House of Bourbon, securing national unification in 1861.[4][5] The papacy called France to resist unification, fearing that giving up control of the Papal States would weaken the Church and allow the liberals to dominate conservative Catholics.[6] Italy captured Rome in 1870 and later formed the Triple Alliance (1882) with Germany and Austria.

World War I

Italy defeated the Ottoman Empire in 1911–1912.[7] By 1915, Italy had acquired in Africa a colony on the Red Sea coast (Eritrea), a large protectorate in Somalia and administrative authority in formerly Turkish Libya. Outside of Africa, Italy possessed a small concession in Tientsin in China (following the Boxer Rebellion) and the Dodecanese Islands off the coast of Turkey.

Austria took the offensive against the terms of the alliance and Italy decided to take part in World War I as a principal allied power with France and Great Britain. Two leaders, Prime Minister Antonio Salandra and Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino made the decisions; their primary motivation was seizure of territory from Austria, as secretly promised by Britain and France in the Treaty of London of 1915. Also, Italy occupied southern Albania and established a protectorate over Albania, which remained in place until 1920.[8]

The Allies defeated the Austrian Empire in 1918 and Italy became one of the main winners of the war. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando focused almost exclusively on territorial gains, but he got far less than he wanted, and Italians were bitterly resentful when they were denied control of the city of Fiume. The conference, under the control of Britain, France and the United States refused to assign Dalmazia and Albania to Italy as had been promised in the Treaty of London. Britain, France and Japan divided the German overseas colonies into mandates of their own, excluding Italy. Italy also gained no territory from the breakup of the Ottoman Empire. Civil unrest erupted in Italy between nationalists who supported the war effort and opposed what they called the "mutilated victory" (as nationalists referred to it) and leftists who were opposed to the war.[9]

Fascism 1922-1945

The Fascist government that came to power with Benito Mussolini in 1922 sought to increase the size of the Italian empire and to satisfy the claims of Italian irredentists. In 1935–36, in its second invasion of Ethiopia Italy was successful and merged its new conquest with its older east African colonies. In 1939, Italy invaded Albania and incorporated it into the Fascist state. During the Second World War (1939–45), Italy formed the axis alliance with Germany (and nominally also Japan). It seized several territories (including parts of France, Greece, Egypt and Tunisia). By war's end it was forced out of all its colonies and protectorates.[10][11]

Republican era

Following the civil war on 1943–1945 and the resulting economic depression, Italy became a republic after a referendum,[12] enjoyed an economic miracle, promoted European unity, joined NATO and became an active member of the European Union.[13] Italy was granted a United Nations trust to administer Somaliland in 1950. When Somalia became independent in 1960, Italy's eight-decade experience with colonialism ended.

Relations by region and country

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Italy relations
 Burkina Faso
 Comoros
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Egypt See Egypt–Italy relations

Relations between both countries were established during the period of the Roman Empire. However, in World War II, relations were strained as Italy invaded Egypt. However, after the war, relations were re-established and are close. Egypt has representations in Rome and Milan, while Italy has representations in Cairo and Alexandria, also the two nations are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Relations deteriorated after the abduction and killing of Italian student Giulio Regeni. Egypt has been accused by Italian authorities and public opinion of lacking of transparence.

 Eritrea
 Ethiopia See Ethiopia–Italy relations
 Kenya 1963 See Italy–Kenya relations
  • Relations were formally established after Kenya gained its independence from British rule.
  • Italy has an embassy in Nairobi and 2 counsulates in Malindi and Mombasa.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Rome.
 Libya 1947, 2011 See Italy–Libya relations
 Mauritania
 Somalia See Italy–Somalia relations
 South Africa 1929 See Italy–South Africa relations
 Tunisia 1957 See Italy–Tunisia relations
 Uganda 1962

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1962.[26]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1837 See Argentina–Italy relations
 Belize 1 October 1982
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1982.[30]
  • Belize has a consulate-general in Milan.[31]
  • Italy is represented in Belize through its embassy in Mexico City and an honorary consulate.[32]
 Bolivia May 25, 1864
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
  • Italy has an embassy in La Paz.
 Brazil 1861 See Brazil–Italy relations
 Canada 1947 See Canada–Italy relations
 Chile 1864 See Chile–Italy relations
 Colombia 1847 See Colombia–Italy relations
 Costa Rica
 Cuba
 Dominica
  • Italy is accredited to Dominica from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.[53]
 Dominican Republic See Dominican Republic-Italy relations
  • Dominican Republic has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Santo Domingo.
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
  • Italy has an embassy in San Salvador.
 Grenada
  • Italy is accredited to Grenada from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.[53]
  • Grenada has an honorary consulate in Florence.[14]
 Guyana 1967

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 April 1967.[54]

 Mexico 1874 See Italy–Mexico relations
 Paraguay 1867
 Peru 1874-12-23
  • Italy and Peru have a long and very rich history of cultural and political connections.
  • Italy has an embassy in Lima.[60]
  • Peru has an embassy in Rome and consulates-general in Florence, Genoa, Milan and Turin.[61]
  • There are between 500,000 and 900,000 people of Italian descent living in Peru (see Italian Peruvians).
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about the relation with Italy (in Spanish only)
 United States 1861–04-11
US President Joe Biden and Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi at Palazzo Chigi in October 29th 2021, one day prior to the 2021 summit.
See Italy–United States relations

The United States enjoys a peculiar and friendly relation with Italy, as the latter, defeated in WWII, has been a secret battlefield of the Cold War. Italy and the US are NATO allies and cooperate in the United Nations, in various regional organizations, and bilaterally. Italy has worked closely with the United States and with other nations on such issues as NATO and UN operations as well as with assistance to Russia and the New Independent States; the Middle East peace process; multilateral talks.

Under longstanding bilateral agreements flowing from NATO membership, Italy hosts important U.S. military forces at Vicenza and Livorno (army); Aviano (air force); and Sigonella, Gaeta, and Naples- home port for the U.S. Navy Sixth Fleet. The United States still has about 16,000 military personnel stationed in Italy. The NATO War College is situated at Cecchignola, a neighborhood of Rome.

 Uruguay 1861 See Italy–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 1861 See Italy–Venezuela relations

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan ~1919 See Afghanistan–Italy relations
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Rome,[63] which was established as a legation in 1921, and was upgraded to embassy in 1960.[64] Italy has an embassy in Kabul.[65]
  • Italy was among the first nations to recognise Afghanistan's sovereignty, following the 1919 recognition by the Soviet Union.[66]
  • Following Germany's 1935 closening with Afghanistan, Italy also established close relations. Afghanistan resisted calls from Moscow and London to expel the Italian and German diplomatic corps for most of World War II.[67]
  • Italy has served as a place of exile for two former Afghan kings, Amanullah Khan (deposed 1929) and Mohammed Zahir Shah (deposed 1973).
 Armenia See Armenia–Italy relations
 Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Rome.[70]
  • Italy has an embassy in Baku.[71]
 Bangladesh ~1972

Relations between two countries have been wonderful. Bangladesh is a huge import market for Italy. Italy has an embassy in Dhaka. Bangladesh has an embassy in Rome.

 China 1970 See People's Republic of China – Italy relations

In 2005, Italy and the People's Republic of China have celebrated the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two nations. However, China's massive exports of textile and footwear into Italy are said to be a rising concern to Italy's economy and productivity.[72]

 Georgia See Georgia–Italy relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Rome.[73]
  • Italy has an embassy in Tbilisi.[74]
  • Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Italy
 India 1950 See India–Italy relations

In 2012, relations deteriorated following the Enrica Lexie Case

 Indonesia 1952 See Indonesia–Italy relations
  • Both nations have shown strong desire to improve their relations, especially in intercultural understanding and trade.[78]
  • Indonesia recognizes Italy's strategic location and important role in the middle of Mediterranean region, while Italy has favoured relations with Indonesia, and sees Indonesia as the leader in Southeast Asia.[79]
  • The relations between two countries not only important to bridge the two regional communities; European Union and ASEAN, but also vital as intercultural and interfaith dialog.[80]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Rome, that also accredited to Malta, Cyprus, San Marino, while Italy has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran See Iran–Italy relations

Iran-Italy trade stood at $US 2.7 Billion in 2001[81] and 3.852 Billion Euros in 2003.[82] In 2005, Italy was the third largest trading partner of Iran with 7.5% of all exports to Iran.[83] Italy was the top trading partner of Iran in the European Union in early 2006.[84] Commercial exchanges hit 6 billion euros in 2008.[85] Although Italy harbors a large population of members of the MKO as do many European Union states, Italy officially considers the group a terrorist organization.[86]

 Iraq See Iraq–Italy relations

Iraq has an embassy in Rome and Italy has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate-general in Basra.

 Israel 1948 See Israel–Italy relations
 Japan 1867-03-31 See Italy–Japan relations
 Kazakhstan 1992 See Italy-Kazakhstan relations
  • In 2017, the trade between Kazakhstan and Italy amounted to $9.6 billion, which is an increase of 13.5% compared to 2016.[94]
  • Italy has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Rome.
 Lebanon See Italy–Lebanon relations
 Maldives 1966
  • Italy has an embassy in Colombo which also functed as non-resident ambassador to Maldives.
  • Maldives is represented in Italy through its permanent mission to UN in Geneva since 2012.
 Malaysia See Italy–Malaysia relations
 North Korea 2000-01-04[100] See Italy–North Korea relations
 Pakistan
  • Pakistan and Italy enjoy close relationship in all fields. Both countries formally have friendly foreign relations.[101] There are over 100,000 Pakistanis living in Italy, mainly living in Milan and Brescia.[102]
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan for representation
  • Italy maintains an embassy in Islamabad, a consulate-general in Karachi and an honorary consulate in Lahore.
 Philippines 1947 See Italy–Philippines relations
  • Italy and the Philippines bilateral and diplomatic relations is established in 1947. A Treaty of Friendship which was signed in Rome and ratified in December 1948. Italy has an embassy in Manila and the Philippines has an embassy in Rome.
 Qatar See Italy–Qatar relations
 Saudi Arabia See Italy–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Riyadh and general consulate in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Rome.
 South Korea 26 June 1884[104] See Italy – South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the kingdom of Italy and the kingdom of Korea began on 26 June 1884 and the Re establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Italian republic the Republic of Korea was on November 24, 1956.[105]

  • Italy has a Working Holiday Program Agreement with South Korea.
  • During the Korean War Italy sent medical staff to help the South Korea.[106]
  • Bilateral Trade in 2014
    • Exports 3,473,000,000 US dollars
    • Imports 6,260,000,000 US dollars
  • Bilateral Investments in 2014
    • South Korea's Investment in Italy 654,000,000 US
    • Italy's Investment in South Korea US$539,000,000
  • The number of the South Koreans living in Italy in 2012 was about 4,054.
  • The Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti visited Seoul in March 2012. (To attend the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit)
  • The President of the Republic of Korea Park Geun-hye visited Rome in October 2014.
  • From 20 to 24 November 2011, 54 participating Italian companies, 8 trade associations and chambers of commerce and 7 banks, held over 300 meetings with 139 Korean companies. The events were promoted by Confindustria (the Italian employers' federation), the Italian Banking Association (ABI), the Ministry for Economic Development (MiSE) and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA). It took the form of seminars, workshops, B2B meetings and institutional events, as well as visits to representations of Korean industry. This was the first structured initiative, with a broad-ranging business representation in Korea, by the Italian economic system since the EU-Korea Free Trade Agreement (FTA) entered into force.[111]
 Sri Lanka 18 April 1950 See Italy-Sri Lanka relations

Italy and Sri Lanka maintain a strong relationship dated back from 1st century.[112]

  • Italy aided Sri Lanka with almost 50 million Euros when a tsunami struck Sri Lanka in 2004.
  • Italy has an embassy in Colombo.
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Rome.
  • The estimated trade value between these countries were US$604.49 million in 2009.
 Syria

See Italy–Syria relations

 Thailand 1870
 Turkey 1856 See Italy–Turkey relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Ankara, a general consulate in Istanbul, a consulate İzmir and 3 honorary consulates in Bursa, Antalya and İskenderun.[115]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Rome and a general consulate in Milan.[116]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • In 2006, Turkey and Italy celebrated the 150th anniversary of the initiation of diplomatic relations.
  • Turkey is a prime destination for Italian tourists
  • Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Italy
 United Arab Emirates
 Vietnam 1973-03-23 See Italy–Vietnam relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Hanoi and a general consulate in Ho Chi Minh City.[117]
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Rome.
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Italy

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1912 See Albania–Italy relations

The Kingdom of Italy supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.
Arbëreshë people
Italian protectorate over Albania
Italian invasion of Albania
Albanian Kingdom (1939–1943)
Italian colonists in Albania

  • Albania has an embassy in Rome and a consulate general in Bari and Milan.
  • Italy has an embassy in Tirana and consulates in Gjirokastër, Shkodra, Vlora.
  • Italy and Albania share similar historical, political and cultural backgrounds.[118]
  • Albania is home to 20,000 Italian migrants and has a 5,000 Italian indigenous community.[119]
  • Italy is home to indigenous Arbereshe community, including up to 900,000 Albanian immigrants.
  • Italian is the third most spoken language of Albania, after Albanian and Greek.[120]
  • Italy is considered one of Albania's strongest allies especially within the European Union.
  • Albanian is a prominent language in Italy with Albanian immigrants speaking Albanian in large numbers on top of the over 800,000 Italians who speak the Arbereshe dialect of Albanian (see Albanians in Italy and Arbëreshë people).[120]
 Andorra

Italy is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Madrid (Spain) and an honorary consulate in Andorra La Vella.

 Austria See Austria–Italy relations
 Belarus
  • Belarus has an embassy in Rome and 2 honorary consulates (in Naples and Turin).[121]
  • Italy has an embassy in Minsk.[122]
 Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Bulgaria 1879 See Bulgaria–Italy relations
 Croatia 1992-01-17 See Croatia–Italy relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Rome, 2 general consulates (in Milan and Trieste), and 5 honorary consulates (in Bari, Florence, Montemitro, Naples, and Padua).
  • Italy has an embassy in Zagreb, a general consulate in Rijeka, a consulate in Split and 2 honorary consulates (in Buje and Pula).
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, NATO, Council of Europe and of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • There are around 19,500 local ethnic Italians (Istrian Italians and Dalmatian Italians) living in Croatia, whose number decreased following the Istrian–Dalmatian exodus.
  • There are 21,360 Croats, some of which are local ethnic, living in Italy (see Croats of Italy and Molise Croats).
 Cyprus
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Rome and 5 honorary consulates (in Genoa, Milan, Naples, Perugia and Augusta).
  • Italy has an embassy in Nicosia and 2 honorary consulates (in Limassol and Larnaca).[132]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, the Council of Europe and of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • There are long cultural and historical ties between the two countries, as Cyprus has been part of the Roman Empire and has been a Venetian Kingdom, while there are Greek-speaking minorities in Italy.
  • Cyprus recognises Latins, the descendants of the Roman Catholic Venetian families that were settled in the island, as a protected minority, and grants the representation in the Parliament.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Italy
 Czech Republic
 Denmark See Denmark-Italy relations
 Estonia
  • Italy recognised Estonia on 26 January 1921. Italy re-recognised Estonia on 27 August 1991.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Rome and six honorary consulates (in Cagliari, Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples and Turin).[137]
  • Italy has an embassy in Tallinn.[138]
  • There are over 200 Estonians living in Italy.
  • There are 1,407 Italians living in Estonia.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Italy
 Finland See Finland–Italy relations
 France See France–Italy relations
 Germany See Germany–Italy relations
 Greece 1861 See Greece–Italy relations

In modern times, both countries established diplomatic relations in 1861, immediately upon Italy's unification, and share a special relationship.

  Holy See See Holy See – Italy relations

Due to the size of the Vatican City State, embassies accredited to the Holy See are based on Italian territory. Treaties signed between Italy and the Vatican City State permit such embassages. The Embassy of Italy to the Holy See is unique amongst foreign embassages in that it is the only embassy based on its home territory.

The Holy See maintains formal diplomatic relations with 176 sovereign states, the European Union, and the Order of Malta; 69 of the diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See are situated in Rome, though those countries than have two embassies in the same city, since, by agreement between the Holy See and Italy, the same person cannot be accredited simultaneously to both. This is shown clearly by the fact that Italy recognizes the People's Republic of China, and as such, the Chinese Embassy is in Rome. However, the Vatican City State recognizes the Taiwan, and as such, Taiwan's embassy to the Holy See is also in Rome. As Italy was the first country to recognize the Holy See as a sovereign nation, their embassy was the first one established.

 Hungary
 Iceland
 Ireland
  • Ireland has an embassy in Rome and an honorary consulate in Milan.[147]
  • Italy has an embassy in Dublin.[148] and an honorary consulate in Galway.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and the Council of Europe.
  • There are 15,000 Irish people living in Italy.
  • There are 7,656 Italians living in Ireland.
 Kosovo See Italy–Kosovo relations

Italy recognized Kosovo on 21 February 2008.[149][150] Italy has an embassy in Pristina since 15 May 2008.[151] Kosovo will open an embassy in Rome.

  • There are 700,000 Kosovans living in Italy.
  • There are 5,000 Italians living in Kosovo.
 Latvia 1991-08-30
  • Italy never officially recognised the annexation of the Baltic states by the USSR.
  • Both countries renewed their diplomatic relations on August 30, 1991.
  • Since 1992, Italy has an embassy in Riga.[152]
  • Latvia has an embassy in Rome and 7 honorary consulates (in Bari, Florence, Milan, Modena, Naples, Palermo and Trieste). Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.[153]
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Italy
 Liechtenstein
  • Italy is represented in Liechtenstein through its embassy in Bern (Switzerland)
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg 1902
 Malta See Italy–Malta relations
 Moldova See Italy-Moldova relations
  • Italy opened an Embassy in Chişinău. The actual Italian ambassador to Moldova with residence in Bucharest is Daniele Mancini.
  • Embassy of the Republic of Moldova in Rome
  • Italian Embassy in Bucharest
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova
  • Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archived 2016-02-02 at the Wayback Machine
 Monaco See Italy-Monaco relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an embassy in Rome and an honorary consulate in Venice.
 Montenegro 2006-06-14
 Netherlands See Italy–Netherlands relations
 North Macedonia 1991
  • Italy has an embassy in Skopje
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Rome.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and of NATO.
 Norway
 Poland 1919 See Italy–Poland relations
 Portugal 1860 See Italy–Portugal relations
 Romania 1873-04-23 See Italy–Romania relations
 Russia See Italy–Russia relations

Russia has an embassy in Rome and consulates in Genoa, Milan and Palermo, and Italy has an embassy in Moscow, a consulate in Saint Petersburg, two consulte generals (in Ekaterinburg and Kaliningrad), and two embassy branches in (Samara and Volgograd). Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

Russia enjoys close relations with Italy. In 2006, Russia and Italy have signed a protocol of cooperation for fighting crime and defending civil liberties. There are close commercial ties between the two countries. Italy is Russia's second important commercial partner in the EU, after Germany. and its state-owned energy company, ENI, has recently signed a very important long-term contract with Gazprom, to import Russian gas into Italy.

The relationship between Russia and Italy goes back a long way. Already in the 1960s, Italy's FIAT built a car-assembling plant in the Soviet city of Tolyatti (a city named after the Italian Communist Party's secretary Palmiro Togliatti). Russians have always visited Italy in great numbers. Many Russian students come to Italy each year to study in Italian universities.[170] The Silvio Berlusconi Government (2001–2006) strengthened Italy's ties with Russia, due to his personal friendship with President Vladimir Putin. Cooperation extends also to the aviation sector, between Italy's Alenia and Russia's Sukhoi, who are jointly developing a new aircraft. Finally, for a long time Italy had the largest communist party in the Western world, with over 2 million members. .[171]

 San Marino See Italy–San Marino relations
  • Italy has an embassy in San Marino.
  • San Marino has an embassy in Rome.
 Serbia 1879 See Italy–Serbia relations
 Slovakia
 Slovenia See Italy–Slovenia relations
 Spain See Italy–Spain relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations after the unification of Italy. Relations between Italy Spain have remained strong and affable for centuries owing to various political, cultural, and historical connections between the two nations.

 Sweden See Italy–Sweden relations
  Switzerland See Italy–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine 1992 See Italy–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom See Italy–United Kingdom relations

Although enemies during World War II, the United Kingdom and Italy have generally enjoyed a warm and friendly relationship throughout history. Both states embrace membership of the NATO, OSCE and the G7[178]

Between 4 and 5 million British tourists visit Italy every year, while 1 million Italian tourists visit the UK.[179] There are about 30,000 British nationals living in Italy (see British in Italy), and 200,000 Italians living in the UK.[180]

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia See Australia–Italy relations
 New Zealand
 Samoa 25 May 1987

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 25, 1987.[187]

 Vanuatu

Italy has an honorary consulate in Port Vila.[188]

International institutions

Italy is part of the UN, EU, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the DAC, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Latin Union, the Council of Europe, the Central European Initiative, the ASEM, the MEF, the ISA, the Uniting for Consensus and several Contact Groups.

See also

  • History portal
  • flagItaly portal
  • iconPolitics portal

References

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Further reading

Pre 1945

  • Azzi, Stephen Corrado. "The Historiography of Fascist Foreign Policy," Historical Journal (1993) 36#1 pp. 187–203 in JSTOR
  • Bosworth, Richard. Italy and the wider world 1860-1960 (2013) excerpt
  • Bosworth, Richard. Italy: The Least of the Great Powers: Italian Foreign Policy Before the First World War (1979)
  • Bosworth, Richard. Mussolini (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Burgwyn, H. James. The legend of the mutilated victory: Italy, the Great War, and the Paris Peace Conference, 1915-1919 (1993).
  • Burgwyn, H. James. Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period, 1918-1940 (1997) excerpt and text search
  • Cassels, Alan. Italian Foreign Policy, 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials (1997)
  • Chabod, Federico. Italian Foreign Policy: The Statecraft of the Founders, 1870-1896 (1996) excerpt and text search
  • Gooch, John. Mussolini and his Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922-1940 (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Knox, MacGregor. Common Destiny: Dictatorship, Foreign Policy, and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany (2000)
  • Lowe, C. J. and F. Marzari. Italian Foreign Policy, 1870-1940 (2001) online
  • Maurizio Marinelli, Giovanni Andornino. Italy's Encounter with Modern China: Imperial dreams, strategic ambitions (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
  • Maurizio Marinelli, "The Genesis of the Italian Concession in Tianjin: A Combination of Wishful Thinking and Realpolitik". Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 15 (4), 2010: 536–556.
  • Sette, Alessandro. "L'Albania nella strategia diplomatica italiana (1871-1915)", Nuova Rivista Storica, Vol. CII, n. 1 (2018), 321–378.
  • Smith, Denis Mack. Modern Italy: A Political History (1997)
  • Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918 (1954), covers all European diplomacy

Since 1945

  • Barberini, Pierluigi. "What strategy for Italy in the Mediterranean basin: rethinking the Italian approach to foreign, security and defense policy." (2020). online
  • Baraggia, Antonia. "The Italian regions in the European Union." in Federalism and Constitutional Law: The Italian Contribution to Comparative Regionalism (2021).
  • Cladi, Lorenzo, and Mark Webber. "Italian foreign policy in the post-cold war period: a neoclassical realist approach." European security 20.2 (2011): 205–219.
  • Cladi, Lorenzo, and Andrea Locatelli. "Explaining Italian foreign policy adjustment after Brexit: a Neoclassical realist account." Journal of European Integration 43.4 (2021): 459-473.
  • Collina, Cristian. "A bridge in times of confrontation: Italy and Russia in the context of EU and NATO enlargements." Journal of Modern Italian Studies 13.1 (2008): 25–40.
  • Coticchia, Fabrizio, and Jason W. Davidson. Italian Foreign Policy During Matteo Renzi's Government: A Domestically Focused Outsider and the World (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019).
  • Coticchia, Fabrizio, and Valerio Vignoli. "Italian Foreign Policy: Still the Days Seem the Same?." in Foreign policy change in Europe Since 1991 (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2021) pp. 179–204.
  • Coticchia, Fabrizio, and Francesco Niccolò Moro. "From enthusiasm to retreat: Italy and military missions abroad after the Cold War." Italian Political Science 15.1 (2020): 114-131.
  • Coticchia, Fabrizio. "A sovereignist revolution? Italy’s foreign policy under the “Yellow–Green” government." Comparative European Politics 19.6 (2021): 739-759. online
  • Coticchia, Fabrizio, and Jason W. Davidson. "The limits of radical parties in coalition foreign policy: Italy, hijacking, and the extremity hypothesis." Foreign Policy Analysis 14.2 (2018): 149-168.
  • Croci, Osvaldo. "The ‘Americanization’ of Italian foreign policy?" Journal of Modern Italian Studies 10.1 (2005): 10–26.
  • Cusumano, Eugenio, and Kristof Gombeer. "In deep waters: The legal, humanitarian and political implications of closing Italian ports to migrant rescuers." Mediterranean Politics 25.2 (2020): 245-253. online
  • Dentice, Giuseppe, and Federico Donelli. "Reasserting (middle) power by looking southwards: Italy’s policy towards Africa." Contemporary Italian Politics 13.3 (2021): 331-351.
  • Diodato, Emidio, and Federico Niglia. Berlusconi ‘The Diplomat’: Populism and Foreign Policy in Italy (Springer, 2018).
  • Faherty, Douglas M. Italian Foreign Policy: Trends for the Twenty-First Century (2012) excerpt
  • Giuntini, Federico Mariano. "Italian 'Yellow-Green Government' and the European Union: a complicated relationship." Journal of Governance and Politics 2 (2019): 19+
  • Lupo, Nicola, and Giovanni Piccirilli, eds. The Italian Parliament in the European Union (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2017)
  • Natalizia, Gabriele, and Mara Morini. "Sleeping with the enemy: The not-so-constant Italian stance towards Russia." Italian Political Science 15.1 (2020): 42-59. online
  • Prontera, Andrea. "Italy, Russia and the Great Reconfiguration in East–West Energy Relations." Europe-Asia Studies 73.4 (2021): 647-672.
  • Ratti, Luca. "Italy and NATO in the 21st century: Still a formidable partnership?" in NATO and Transatlantic Relations in the 21st Century (Routledge, 2020) pp. 188–206.
  • Siddi, Marco. "Italy-Russia relations: Politics, energy and other businesses." ast European (2012): 73+ online.
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